Topper's copies from our test series

A.I.R. 09 (2019)
Answer Sheet

Disclaimer: This was from Ravi's 2018 test series- in that year too he scored decent marks but this year, he has far exceeded it. Please look at the answers from point of view that there are many improvements he would have done to his answer writing based on feedback.

A.I.R. 24 (2018)
Psychology Marks in
UPSC-CSE 2018 :333
A.I.R. 303 (2018)
Psychology Marks in
UPSC- CSE 2018 : 284

Notes

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Ch 1.1 Introduction


Introduction: Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

Ch 1.2-1.3 Methods of Psychological Research


Ch 2: Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focused group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.
Ch 3: Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) etc.

1.4 Development of Human Behaviour


Syllabus: Growth & development; Principles of development, Role of genetic & environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development - Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.

1.5 Sensation, Attention and Perception


Ch 5: Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.

1.6 Learning


Syllabus: Concepts and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self-instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.

1.7 Memory


Syllabus: Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

1.8 Thinking and Problem Solving


Syllabus: Piaget's theory of cognitive development (dealt in Ch-4); Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.

1.9 Motivation and Emotion


Syllabus: Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

1.10 Intelligence and Aptitude


Syllabus: Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence - Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford, Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

1.11 Personality


Syllabus: Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development ; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.

1.12 Attitudes, Values and Interests


Syllabus: Definition of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.

1.13 Language and Communication


Syllabus: Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development - Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training.

1.14 Modern Psychology


Syllabus: Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence ; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness - sleep - wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception, Simulation studies.