1.13 Language and Communication
Syllabus : Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development - Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training.
Previous Year Questions
Q. Discuss the components of language acquisition citing the average age at which these are demonstrated by a child. 15 marks 
Q. Illustrate with suitable examples the non-verbal process of communication. 10 marks 
Q. How does Chomsky’s Theory differ from that of Skinner in language development ? Discuss. 15 marks 
Q. Commenting on bilingualism and multilingualism in Indian context, outline a language policy relevant to schooling. 15 marks 
Q. Considering some successful advertisements witnessed by you, describe the key factors that enhance effectiveness of communication. 15 marks 
Q. What are the processes of language production ? 10 marks 
Q. What makes a persuasive attempt effective? Discuss. 15 marks 
Q. Discuss the modification of Chomsky’s transformational generative grammar. 12 marks 
Q. What is meant by effective communication? Evaluate various sources of effective communication. 20 marks 
Q. How does language differ from other forms of communication? Referring to relevant studies, document children’s progress from non–verbal communication to the use of language . 30 marks 
Q. Compare Chomsky's innate mechanism view with Skinner's view of language development. 30 marks 
Q. Comment on Chomsky's theory of transformational Generative grammar and discuss its later modifications. 20 marks 
Q. Describe the phase of language acquisition and show how critical period hypothesis explains the process of language acquisition 60 marks 
Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication
Communication can be divided between verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is communication using speech that is understood by all parties to the communication. In other words, it's talking. Keep in mind that we're talking about speech, not the written word. Written communication falls under its own category.
Non-verbal communication is a bit more complicated. It is sending a message without using words to convey meaning. Non-verbal communication can include many different elements. Let's look at some:
- Vocal cues, referred to as paralinguistics, is a form of non-verbal communication that includes such things as pitch, inflection, tone, volume, speed of the speech, quality, non-word sounds, pronunciation, enunciation and even silence.
- Body movement and gestures are also part of non-verbal communication. For example, leaning forward may mean interest, while crossing arms is often viewed as a defensive posture.
- Facial expressions are a common form of non-verbal communication. Examples of facial expressions include smiling, crying and grimacing.
- Space can also act as a form of non-verbal communication. Space includes the concept of territoriality and personal space. Territoriality is about making sure others know your territory. A fence is an example of territoriality. Personal space, on the other hand, is a three-dimensional space surrounding you that you don't want people to cross. If they come too close, you get uncomfortable.
- Touch is often considered as positive and reinforcing, such as patting someone on the back for a job well done.
- Clothing and artifacts can also send a message, including status, conformity or rebellion. Think about a doctor. Do they really need to wear a lab coat during all examinations? Not really, but it's a cue to their status. Artifacts include such things as hairstyles, jewelry, cosmetics, watches, shoes, tattoos and body piercing.
Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:
- Formal Communication
- Informal Communication
- Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.
- Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. It’s just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures.
Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesn’t follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships.